Phonological Impairment's Relation to Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Literacy A phonological impairment is a disturbance in the speech sound production system that results in systematic speech errors (Bird, Bishop, & Freeman, 1995; Shriberg & Kwiat-kowski, 1994) . Phonological impairment may arise due to children’s inadequate mental representations of speech sounds (Bird et al., 1995)  and/ or due to difficulty accessing ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2004
Phonological Impairment's Relation to Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Literacy
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Monica Gordon Pershey
    Department of Speech and Hearing, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH
  • Patricia A. Clickner
    Lorain County Board of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Elyria, OH
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / School-Based Settings / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Articles
Article   |   June 01, 2004
Phonological Impairment's Relation to Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Literacy
SIG 16 Perspectives on School-Based Issues, June 2004, Vol. 5, 8-12. doi:10.1044/sbi5.2.8
SIG 16 Perspectives on School-Based Issues, June 2004, Vol. 5, 8-12. doi:10.1044/sbi5.2.8
A phonological impairment is a disturbance in the speech sound production system that results in systematic speech errors (Bird, Bishop, & Freeman, 1995; Shriberg & Kwiat-kowski, 1994) . Phonological impairment may arise due to children’s inadequate mental representations of speech sounds (Bird et al., 1995)  and/ or due to difficulty accessing internal representations of speech sounds (Catts, 1991). Phonological impairment affects from 7.5% (Shriberg & Kwiatkowski, 1994) to 10% (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders [NIDCD], 2000) of children ages 3 to 11. Of affected children, 80% require speech therapy to facilitate remediation and 50% to 70% experience academic difficulties that may persist through grade 12 (NIDCD, 2000).
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