Persistent Speech Sound Disorder in a 22-Year-Old Male: Communication, Educational, Socio-Emotional, and Vocational Outcomes Persistent Speech Disorder (PSD) is present when a speech impairment extends beyond 8–9 years of age. Persistent Speech Disorder can extend into adolescence and adulthood. While PSD can include individuals with residual speech errors, such as distortions of /r/, /s/, and /z/, clinicians are particularly concerned in cases where PSD ... Article
Article  |   April 01, 2015
Persistent Speech Sound Disorder in a 22-Year-Old Male: Communication, Educational, Socio-Emotional, and Vocational Outcomes
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Bronwyn Carrigg
    Sydney Children's Hospital
    The University of Sydney
  • Elise Baker
    The University of Sydney
  • Louise Parry
    Sydney Children's Hospital
  • Kirrie J. Ballard
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  • Disclosures: Financial: Bronwyn Carrigg, Elise Baker, Louise Parry, and Kirrie J. Ballard have no relevant financial interests to disclose.
    Disclosures: Financial: Bronwyn Carrigg, Elise Baker, Louise Parry, and Kirrie J. Ballard have no relevant financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: Bronwyn Carrigg, Elise Baker, and Louise Parry have no nonfinancial interests to disclose. Kirrie J. Ballard has previously published on this topic. Some of this work is referenced in this paper.
    Nonfinancial: Bronwyn Carrigg, Elise Baker, and Louise Parry have no nonfinancial interests to disclose. Kirrie J. Ballard has previously published on this topic. Some of this work is referenced in this paper.×
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Special Populations / School-Based Settings / Normal Language Processing / Articles
Article   |   April 01, 2015
Persistent Speech Sound Disorder in a 22-Year-Old Male: Communication, Educational, Socio-Emotional, and Vocational Outcomes
SIG 16 Perspectives on School-Based Issues, April 2015, Vol. 16, 37-49. doi:10.1044/sbi16.2.37
History: Received January 11, 2015 , Accepted January 17, 2015
SIG 16 Perspectives on School-Based Issues, April 2015, Vol. 16, 37-49. doi:10.1044/sbi16.2.37
History: Received January 11, 2015; Accepted January 17, 2015

Persistent Speech Disorder (PSD) is present when a speech impairment extends beyond 8–9 years of age. Persistent Speech Disorder can extend into adolescence and adulthood. While PSD can include individuals with residual speech errors, such as distortions of /r/, /s/, and /z/, clinicians are particularly concerned in cases where PSD affects speech intelligibility. This paper is presented in two parts. Part 1 reviews the limited literature available on speech, language, literacy, educational, vocational, and socio-emotional outcomes in people with PSD of currently unknown origin. Part 2 presents a case study of a 22-year-old man, known as BJ, who has Nonverbal IQ in the normal range and severe PSD, specifically Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Longitudinal data on BJ from 3;3 years to 22 years is presented, alongside BJ's insights into PSD written via e-mail or using his electronic communication device. These two sources of information add to the limited body of information about the course of PSD and the experience of PSD in an individual through to adulthood.

Acknowledgments
We are very grateful to BJ for sharing his experience and understanding of PSD with the broader SLP community. We would also like to thank Lauren Hamill for her help in gathering data for this paper.
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